Glossary of Terms

Additional problems are research oriented problems which the Teams are given at Science Fight 4. The Teams have only 45 minutes to solve them. These problems have Numbers 21—26.

Age limit for the IYNT participants is set such that participants must not turn the age of 17 years during the calendar year of the respective IYNT competition.

Attendant, or Science Fight Attendant, is an assistant who fills out separate Science Fight protocols, manages the Clock, and otherwise helps the Chairperson in the Group.

Average Point, or P, is a mark calculated on the basis of Grades G given by several Jurors to one performance in one Group. Two extreme Grades, one maximum and one minimum, are replaced with one grade equal to their arithmetic mean. In the next step, P is determined as the arithmetic mean of the new data set of n−1 Grades.

Belgrade is a city in Serbia where the 3rd IYNT 2015 was held on June 19—25, 2015. We sometimes refer to the 3rd IYNT as Belgrade 2015.

Bracket, also known as Distribution of Teams among Groups, is a chart establishing what Team competes in what Group. The Brackets for Science Fights 1, 2, and 3 are established via drawing lots at the Opening Ceremony. The Brackets for Science Fight 4, Semi-Finals, and Finals are established by an exactly prescribed rule and depend on the results in preceding Science Fights.

Break, or Coffee Break, is a 10-minute pause between Stages in one Science Fight.

Captain is the lead Team Member who is the Team's important representative during the IYNT. The Captain makes the Challenges, asks Jurors to justify their Grades, and takes part in the Captain's Contest on behalf of their Team. It is not allowed to replace the Captain after the Opening Ceremony.

Captain's Contest is a short contest in the beginning of Science Fight 4, Semi-Finals, and Finals. The winner decides on the Sequence of Performances in the Group.

Chairperson, or Jury Chairperson, is the lead Juror in each parallel Group. Each Chairperson is well versed in the Regulations. He or she announces the ordering, manages time, facilitates discussions, clarifies the Regulations, and is otherwise responsibe for administration and smooth procedures in each Group. Each Chairperson is appointed by the General Council for each particular Science Fight Group.

Challenge is a procedure involving Opponent and Reporter, but not Reviewer. The Opponent challenges the Reporter on any IYNT problem among the problems available for the Science Fight. The Reporter accepts or rejects the Challenge. If the Challenge is accepted, the Reporter starts preparing for their Report. If the Challenge is rejected, the Opponent makes a new challenge. It is allowed to make a Challenge on a previously rejected problem. In Semi-Finals and Finals the Challenge procedure is omitted, and the Teams select the problems of their choice.

Clarifying questions is a distinct type of questions that Jurors ask to any Team, Opponent asks to Reporter, and Reviewer asks to Reporter and Opponent. Anyone who asks clarifying questions should not expressly examine textbook knowledge and should not give any personal judgment even when an answer is received. Rather than provoking an abstract intellectual conversation, such questions aim at getting a better grasp of presented results, opinions, and conclusions.

Clock is a digital timer used to indicate the available time for each Phase. The Clock turns red in 30 seconds before the Phase ends.

Closing Ceremony involves the presentation of Medals and Diplomas, and may involve presentation of Problems for the next IYNT.

Criterion of Victory, or V, is a grading parameter that indicates whether or not a team obtained a top Sum of Points SP in a Science Fight Group. For the Team with the highest SP in a SF Group, the Criterion of Victory is V=1. If the SP is lower than the top result by no more than 2 points, V=1. If the SP differs from the top result by more than 2 points yet less than 10 points, V=½. Otherwise, V=0.

Diplomas can be First Place, Second Place, and Third Place. They are awarded simultaneously with Gold, Silver, and Bronze Medals, respectively.

DP is a type of Yellow Card that a Team gets in case its Introduction at the Opening Ceremony lasts more than 3 minutes. DP is short for Duration of one Performance.

Eskişehir is a city in Turkey where the 1st IYNT 2013 was held on April 29—May 6, 2013. We sometimes refer to the 1st IYNT as Eskişehir 2013.

Finals, or Final SF, is the last Science Fight that determines Gold and Silver winners of the IYNT. Challenge procedure is omitted in the Finals.

Final Rank, or RF, indicates the placing of the Team after the completion of the IYNT and the order in which Certificates and Diplomas are awarded at the Closing Ceremony, from bottom to top. It is made public only after the Finals.

Foundation for Youth Tournaments is a non-profit body established by Evgeny Yunosov. It provides a financial infrastructure for the IYNT and is a contracting party to enter into legally binding relations to prepare each IYNT competition.

General Council, or GC, is the governing body of the IYNT. The Council presides over the manner in which the IYNT is held, releases all of its Problems, adopts the Regulations and ensures their implementation, and has ultimate authority over the IYNT competition.

Grade, or G, is an integer score that each Juror gives to evaluate a Team performance. In any Science Fight, the Grades are in the following range: 1...30 for the Report, 1...20 for the Opposition, 1...10 for the Review. The Grades are in the range 1...10 for the Introduction of the Team at the Opening Ceremony. The Jurors record their Grades G in their Individual Juror's Protocol and then hold up respective score signs. Each Grade G is public and cannot be corrected retroactively, even if the Juror changes their mind during a Break.

Group is an entity comprising three or two Teams competing in one room, their Jurors, as well an indication of this room. Each selective Science Fight is played in several parallel Groups designated as A, B, C, etc. Each Science Fight in one Group is a round-robin game in which all Teams play each of the other Teams and one-by-one assume each of the three Roles.

Independent Juror is not affilliated with any Team and is not restricted from judging any Team.

Individual Juror's Protocol is a protocol used by each Juror to record their Grades G. Nine Grades G (in a three-team Science Fight) or six Grades G (in a two-team Science Fight) are recorded in each Protocol, which is signed by the Juror three or two times, respectively.

Introduction of Teams is a graded round of the IYNT. A short artistic performance by each Team during the Opening Ceremony is limited to 3 minutes. The performance can be of any genre and kind, and Team Leaders may participate.

Invent Yourself are open-ended questions that ask the Teams to specify and formulate their own problem statements and solve the respectively stated tasks. The general descriptions of these problems are released by the GC together with the main problems. Teams must release their original written statements of the problems Invent Yourself to the GC no later than in the beginning of the IYNT. The submitted statements of the problems are made public. These problems have Numbers 1—5 and are played at Science Fight 3, Semi-Finals, and Finals.

IYNT is an abbreviation for International Young Naturalists' Tournament. The IYNT is a scientific competition among teams of students aged 12 through 16. The IYNT was held for the first time in 2013, and has so far attracted 31 teams from 14 different countries. Many of participating countries organize nationwide selection which significantly expand our audience of students and educators.

Juror is an independent expert or one of the Team Leaders who evaluates the performances of the Teams by showing integer Grades G. The Juror does not interact with any Team during one Stage but can ask Clarifying questions in a special Phase before Grading.

Justification of Grades is publicly made by Jurors in the concluding Phase of each Stage. Whereas no Grade G can be corrected anymore, each Juror has time to comment on their Grades and in particular explain extreme Grades. Chairperson and Team Captains can ask any Juror to justify any of the given Grades.

Kyustendil is a city in Bulgaria where the 2nd IYNT 2014 was held on August 22—27, 2014. We sometimes refer to the 2nd IYNT as Kyustendil 2014.

Leader, or Team Leader, is an educator coaching a Team and accompanying the Team to the IYNT. During the Science Fight he or she may not speak to or interact with the six Members of the Team. Team Leaders receive Medals and Diplomas together with their Team Members. Each Team has two Leaders.

Local logo promotes visual identity of each IYNT competition, its Local Organizing Committee, and its host country. Each of the annual IYNTs has its own local logo.

Local Organizing Committee, or LOC, provides board, lodging and premises, and ensures all necessary conditions and facilities to conduct the IYNT competition in the host country. The LOC however does not execute the IYNT.

Local webpage is maintained by the Local Organizing Committee and collects the information specific for each individual IYNT such as basic details about the venue, visa support, arrival airport, local logo, electric outlet standard in the host country, connectivity standard of local data projectors, as well as welcome words and appropriate local contact details.

Lot is a procedure carried out at the Opening Ceremony to establish Tournament Brackets.

Main problems are research oriented experimental and theoretical problems in natural sciences. They are released by the GC in advance. These problems have Numbers 6—17 and are played at Science Fights 1 and 2, Semi-Finals, and Finals.

Medals can be Gold, Silver, and Bronze. They are awarded simultaneously with First Place, Second Place, and Third Place Diplomas, respectively.

Member, or Team Member, is one of six participants on each Team. The Team Captain is one of the Members. It is not allowed to replace any Member after the Opening Ceremony.

Nanjing is a city in China where the 5th IYNT 2017 will be held on June 30—July 4, 2017. We sometimes refer to the 5th IYNT as Nanjing 2017.

Naturalist is an advocate of the belief that the World can be understood in scientific, rational terms. In the IYNT, the word retains its historical connotations with Natural Philosophers such as Newton or Galileo, and Natural Historians such as Darwin or von Humboldt.

NP is a type of Yellow Card that a team gets in case it sends one individual Team Member to the stage more than once during one Science Fight. NP is short for Number of Performances.

NR is a type of Yellow Card that a team gets in case it has rejected more than a total of three Problems. NR is short for Number of Rejected Challenges.

NT is a type of Yellow Card that a team gets in case it sends one individual Team Member to the stage more than once as Reporter, or more than once as Opponent, or more than once as Reviewer. NT is short for Number Total.

Opening Ceremony involves greetings and speaches, but also the Drawing Lots to determine Tournament Brackets. Introduction of Teams via short performances for which each Team gets Grades takes place at the Opening Ceremony.

Opponent is the Role of the Team (or Team Member, respectively) that tries to find the strenghts and weaknesses of the Reporter's presentation.

Penalty is applied if a Team violates a particular IYNT regulation or exceeds a particular limit. Each penalty results in reducing the Sum of Points earned by the Team in the current round by 10%. There are three types of Penalties at Science Fights and one type of Penalty at Introduction of Teams. Each of these is indicated by a respective Yellow Card (NP, NR, NT, or DP.) Various violatios are applied independently and sum up such that the SP is reduced by 20%, 30% etc.

Phase is a part of a Stage. Each Phase lasts an exactly prescribed amount of time. Examples of Phases are Report, Opposition, Review, and Grading.

Preparation time is a Phase of a Stage immediately before any Team takes to the floor. The Reporter's preparation time is 3 minutes in all Science Fights except Science Fight 4, and is primarily used to check that the slides are ready and Reporter's laptop is connected to projector. In Science Fight 4, this time lasts 45 minutes and is used to solve an accepted additional problem. The Opponent's and Reviewer's preparation time are 3 minutes and 2 minutes, respectively. This time involves fixing contents and message of the Opposition and Review, finalizing the slides, and connecting laptop to projector.

Pre-registration is the first step for any Team to inform the Situation Center about their provisional intention to take part in the IYNT. Pre-registration requires no further information about the Team and no commitment whatsoever. By pre-registering early enough, potentially months before the Team Members are selected, the Team can benefit from receiving important updates and reminders on deadlines.

Rank, or R, indicates the placing of each Team after each completed Science Fight. It is calculated according to a detailed and exactly prescribed procedure, and equals R=1 for the top Team.

Regulations are the key rules of the IYNT.

Rejection, or rejected challenge, is an announcement by a Reporter that it declines presenting a problem suggested by the Opponent in their challenge. During the whole IYNT, three challenges can be rejected at no penalty. Further rejections result in NR Yellow Cards.

Reporter is the Role of the Team (or Team Member, respectively) that presents their solution to one of the problems and defends it in a discussion with the Opponent.

Results are published after each completed round and include the following grading parameters: Rank R, Sum of Victories SV, Total Sum of Points TSP, Criterion of Victory V for the most recent completed SF or all preceding SFs, and Sum of Points SP for the most recent completed SF or all preceding SFs.

Reviewer is the Role of the Team (or Team Member, respectively) that tries to find and sum up the Reporter's and Opponent's strengths and weaknesses.

Role is a type of performance in a Science Fight. There are three distinct Roles in the IYNT: Reporter, Opponent, and Reviewer.

Science Fight, or SF, is a graded round of the IYNT. The IYNT normally includes six consecutive SFs over a span of several days: four Selective, one Semi-Final, and one Final. Two or three Teams participate in one Science Fight Group. One Science Fight lasts three hours and has two coffee breaks (or two hours and one coffee break in a two-Team Science Fight.) Each Science Fight is played in one or several parallel Groups.

Scoring Commission is a body of the IYNT responsible for calculating the Results.

Selective Science Fights are the four Science Fights in which all teams compete. Science Fights 1 and 2 focus on main problems, Science Fight 3 focuses on problems Invent Yourself, while Science Fight 4 focuses on additional problems.

Sequence of Performances in a Science Fight is the order by which each Team assumes each of the three Roles (Reporter, Opponent, and Reviewer.) In Stage I, the Roles are determined either by the Tournament Bracket (in Science Fights 1, 2, and 3) or by the winner of the Captain's Contest (in Science Fight 4, Semi-Finals, and Finals.) In Stages II and III, an exactly prescribed rule establishes the rotation of Roles after Stage I.

Semi-Finals, or Semi-Final SF, is the second last Science Fight that determines Finalists and Bronze winners of the IYNT. Challenge procedure is omitted in the Semi-Finals.

SF is the common abbreviation for Science Fight.

Shiraz is a city in Iran where the 4th IYNT 2016 was held on July 16—22, 2016. We sometimes refer to the 4th IYNT as Shiraz 2016.

Situation Center, or SC, is an IYNT body responsible for international coordination.

Stage is a part of a Science Fight. There are three or two Stages in a Science Fight with three or two Teams, respectively. Each Stage is divided into ca. 17 Phases, including such key Phases as Report, Opposition, Review, and Grading. A Stage lasts around 50 minutes, excluding a coffee break or an extended preparation time in Science Fight 4.

Sum of Points, or SP, is a grading parameter which reflects the results of one Science Fight or the Introduction of the Team at the Opening Ceremony. If the Team gets a Yellow Card, the value of SP is reduced by 10%.

Sum of Victories, or SV, is a grading parameter equal to the sum of Criterions of Victory V after all completed Science Fights. It is the primary parameter to determine the Rank R.

Team is a squad of six students who compete in the IYNT. Each Team has a Captain. Whereas the IYNT is a competition among Teams, all Members of one Team share credit for accomplishments and receive same Medals or Certificates, which is also extended to the two Leaders of the Team.

Total Sum of Points, or TSP, is a grading parameter equal to the sum of all Sums of Points in previous Science Fights and in the Introduction of the Team. Total Sum of Points is the secondary parameter used to determine the Rank R.

Yellow Card is an indication of a penalty applied to a Team for violating one of the IYNT rules.